Within just a few years, despite their lack of higher education, John and his brother started up their own Quaker school. He attended John Fletcher’s Quaker grammar school in Eaglesfield. Dalton had come to the conclusion that color blindness was hereditary. He also researched and wrote on the constitution of steam at different temperatures, specifically its atmospheric pressure. John Dalton. The following day, an attendant found him dead beside his bed. Jacqui Rossi talks about John Dalton's discoveries of the atom and colorblindness. He learned from his father, a weaver, and from Quaker John Fletcher, who taught at a private school. Dalton proposed ways to measure atomic weight and strengthened the importance of atoms in chemistry. He was born about Sept. 6, 1766 (no exact record exists), in Eaglesfield. Dalton Gomez is an American real estate tycoon who is engaged to the famous American singer Ariana Grande. Il est connu surtout pour sa théorie atomique, publiée en 1808, ainsi que pour ses recherches sur le daltonisme Biographie. John Dalton was born on 6 September 1766 at the settlement of Eaglesfield in the county of... #2 He started teaching at a local school when he was twelve. He is best known for his discoveries in atomic theory. John Dalton Facts John Dalton (September 6, 1766 to July 27, 1844) was a British scientist who made many important contributions to various fields of study. Due to Dalton's rare form of colorblindness, he was only able to see one color, yellow. Dalton was the youngest child in his family who survived till adulthood. Elements are made of tiny particles (atoms). Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, August 28). Wiki Bio of John Dalton net worth is updated in 2021. An unusual story about him is that both John Dalton and his brother were born color-blind. John Dalton. It was discovered in 1995 that Dalton actually had a very rare form of colorblindness, a fact that Dalton himself studied in great detail and published on many times. His family was ‘Quaker’, a member of a Christian Movement, whose ideology was derived from a … Joseph married Deborah Greenup in 1755, herself from a prosperous local Quaker family. A Biography of Michael Faraday, Inventor of the Electric Motor, Biography of Amedeo Avogadro, Influential Italian Scientist, Basic Model of the Atom and Atomic Theory, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College. In 1803, he theorized what has now become known as Dalton's Law: essentially it states that the total pressure of combined gases is equal to the partial pressures of each of those gases separately. John Dalton, F.R.S., engraved by William Henry Worthington after an 1814 painting by William Allen, published June 25, 1823, in Manchester and London. His family was Quaker. https://www.thoughtco.com/john-dalton-biography-4042882 (accessed January 27, 2021). This historically Christian denomination was also known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church. John Dalton est né le 6 septembre 1766, à Eaglesfield, dans le comté de Cumberland (actuelle Cumbria) en Angleterre.Il vient d’une famille humble. https://www.thoughtco.com › john-daltons-atomic-model-607777 Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Random John Dalton Fact As a Quaker, also designated as a Dissenter in England, Dalton was not allowed to attend or hold a university position. John Dalton was born on September 6th 1766 in Eaglesfield, England. He also made the first important studies of color blindness. John de Dalton, chivaler, Matthew de Havdok, Thomas D'Ardern, chivaler and others unknown, wiih Margery, late the wife of Nicholas de la Beche, came to the manor of Holland, then vacant, which is the manor of dame Matilda de Holand, she being ignorant of their coming, and on Monday next following [9 April] the said John de Dalton married the said dame Margery and they dwelt there until … If the provincial Dissenter of dubiously middle–class background, obscure education, and self–made opportunity is the characteristics figure of late eighteenth–century English natural philosophy, then John Dalton is the classic example of the species. Quakers were Christians but they were considered dissenters by the established Church of England. John Dalton - John Dalton - Atomic theory: By far Dalton’s most influential work in chemistry was his atomic theory. The first communication which Dalton ever made to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester was a paper read on 31 October 1794, entitled, ‘Extraordinary Facts relating to the Vision of Colours: with Observations by Mr John Dalton’.l Dalton had discovered that he saw colours differently from other people and his paper was the first serious study on colour deficiency to be published. Dalton’s atomic theory proposed that all matter was composed of atoms, indivisible and indestructible building blocks. The top city of residence is Hoboken, followed by Trenton. He kept writing in it until the day he died. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Biography of John Dalton, the 'Father of Chemistry'." It was gentle John Dalton who finally sorted out the rumblings of late 18th-century chemists and gave us a proper atomic theory. In 1793 Dalton published Meteorological Observations and Essays, one of the first books of its kind. John Dalton 81 Success Facts - Everything You Need To Know ... Nuclear Energy. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec … John did many researches into color blindness, color blindness is also often referred to as Daltonism. He called it “Extraordinary Facts Relating to the Vision of Colours.” Dalton’s scientific paper was the first to touch on the topic of color blindness. Sa mère, Deborah Greenup, et son père, Joseph Dalton, appartenaient à la Société Religieuse des Amis (quakers) et eurent trois enfants : Jonathan, John, Marie. From his understanding of atoms, Dalton also published a listing of atomic weights for six different elements: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and phosphorous. Dia terkenal karena memperkenalkan teori atom ke dalam kimia, dan untuk penelitiannya tentang buta warna, kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Daltonisme untuk menghormatinya. Dalton was born color-blind along with one of his 2 surviving brothers. He also soon invented a new way to measure the height of mountains.He did this by using a barometer, an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. His zodiac sign is Virgo. Atoms combine according to the "rule of greatest simplicity," which says if atoms only combine in one ratio, it must be a binary one. He did some research on it, … He also developed methods to calculate atomic weights and structures and formulated the law of partial pressures. John Dalton lived the life of scholastic bachelor. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Atoms of one element are exactly the same size and. Early Life. Some points of Dalton's atomic theory have been shown to be false. i'm doing a research project and i have to use the 5 w's-who what, when, where, and why and i need some facts, thx so much for answering, best answer gets 10 points! Overall, the theory was immensely powerful. Random John Dalton Fact As a Quaker, also designated as a Dissenter in England, Dalton was not allowed to attend or hold a university position. He was a bachelor and a devout Quaker who showed little passion of any kind. If the provincial Dissenter of dubiously middle–class background, obscure education, and self–made opportunity is the characteristics figure of late eighteenth–century English natural philosophy, then John Dalton is the classic example of the species. While he is probably best known for his groundbreaking research and contributions to atomic theory, colorblindness is often referred to as Daltonism due to his important work in the field. John longed for a good education but his family was very poor and it was clear that he would need to help with his family's finances at a young age. During this time he recorded more than 200,000 values, using equipment which for the most part was made by him. The postulates and limitations of Dalton’s atomic theory are listed below. Dalton Gomez was born on Monday, August 7, 1995 (age 25 years; as of 2020), in Southern California. The average John Dalton is around 81 years of age with around 42% falling in to the age group of 81+. He taught instead at a school his brother founded for Quaker students in Kendal. He is also remembered for his weather observations, which he began recording in 1787 using instruments he made himself. ", According to the Science History Institute, Dalton's atomic theories developed during his explorations of meteorology. He attended the Quaker Grammar school in the Eaglesfield lead by John Fletcher. John Dalton, né à Eaglesfield (Angleterre) le 6 septembre 1766 et mort à Manchester le 27 juillet 1844, est un chimiste et physicien britannique. In fact, Dalton's contributions have earned him the nickname, "the father of chemistry. He lived for about 78 years. John Ford. 10 Interesting Facts About John Dalton #1 John Dalton was a Quaker. Dalton kept meticulous daily weather records. His father worked as a weaver, earning little money. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Biography of John Dalton, the 'Father of Chemistry'." Atoms form chemical compounds by combining with each other in simple, whole number ratios. John Dalton (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English Chemist who introduced atomic theory into chemistry, revolutionising the subject and laying the foundations for modern chemistry as we understand it. When John was a little kid he identified the hereditary nature of red-greed color blindness. Although Quakers were Christians, they were seen as dissenters by the established Church of England. Ten fun facts about John Dalton. English chemist and physicist John Dalton extended Proust’s work and converted the atomic philosophy of the Greeks into a scientific theory between 1803 and 1808. He was the son of Quakers. His brother also had the illness. Theories of Atomism and the Law of Partial Pressures. John Dalton actually published in a variety of fields, including mathematics and English grammar, but he is best known for his science. John Dalton began his meteorological diary at the age of 21. Dalton was born into a Quaker family on September 6, 1766. Il vient d’une famille humble. This discovery led him to the idea that "the atoms in a mixture were indeed different in weight and “complexity.”. John Dalton Biography, Life, Interesting Facts. It led to experimentation with the concept of atomic weight, which became the basis for later discoveries in physics and chemistry. Another deviation from the theory is that isotopes of atoms of a single element may be different from each other (isotopes were unknown in Dalton's time). John Dalton est né le 6 septembre 1766, à Eaglesfield, dans le comté de Cumberland (actuelle Cumbria) en Angleterre. Dalton was born into a Quaker family on September 6, 1766. Different elements' atoms can combine in set ratios to produce new compounds. Il est connu surtout pour sa théorie atomique, publiée en 1808, ainsi que pour ses recherches sur le daltonisme. John Dalton (6 September 1766–27 July 1844) was a British chemist and physicist. Early Life. Dalton and his brother were both colorblind, but this condition had not been officially discussed or studied. Dalton’s early life was highly influenced by a prominent Eaglesfield Quaker named Elihu Robinson, a … Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/john-dalton-biography-4042882. After he wrote Meteorological Observations and Essays, John Dalton developed an interest in chemistry.Later, in 1808, Dalton developed the Atomic Theory based on his studies and wrote another book, A New System of Chemical Philosophy .In this book he also included a chart of atoms and their composition, which made … He died July 27, 1884. John Dalton was born in the small settlement of Eaglesfield in Cumberland, England to Joseph Dalton, a poor weaver and Deborah Greenup, who belonged to a prosperous Quaker family in England. He was born September 6, 1766 in Eaglesfield, England and died July 27, 1844 of paralysis. … That much is certain. John Dalton was born in the community of Eaglesfield, England, on September 6, 1766. Dalton was also very influential in the study of meteorology, and many of his ideas were not altered until the invention of the airplane and weather balloons. Dalton was born into a Quaker family of tradesmen; his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker, and his father, Joseph, was a weaver. Birthplace: Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England Location of death: Manchester, England Cause of death: Stroke Remains: Buried, Ardwick. John Dalton was an English scientist, best known for researching color blindness and for developing the atomic theory.. The concept of atoms of elements endures to the present day. As a result of this, John Dalton’s higher educational opportunities were restricted to dissenting places of education. He was one of the first to theorize that colorblindness was a genetic feature, as his brother was also colorblind. He thought the color perception might be due to a discoloration inside the liquid of the eye and believed there was a hereditary component to red-green color blindness. Dalton, John (b.Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England, 6 September 1766; d.Manchester, England, 27 July 1844) physics, chemistry, meteorology.. Dalton's interpretation of atomic theory maintained that atoms are combined in chemical reactions, but also that they can be separated and rearranged. John Dalton John Dalton was born in a small thatched cottage in the village of Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England. John Dalton (1766-1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist, best known for introducing the atomic theory into chemistry and for his work on human optics. JOHN DALTON Lived from: 1766-1844 Put forward atomic model in: 1803 Nickname for his model: Billiard Ball Model Description of his model: Dalton was an English chemist and teacher who used experimental evidence to form the atomic theory of matter: All elements are composed (made up) of … One of his most important contributions is also his work on the principles of volumetric analysis. Atoms can't be further subdivided, nor may they be created or destroyed. English chemist and physicist, was born about the 6th of September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. He believed air consisted of about 80% nitrogen and 20% oxygen, unlike most of his peers, who thought air was its own compound. Dalton suffered from color blindness, seeing everything in yellow. John Dalton published the first ever paper on colour blindness. Dalton was the youngest of their three offspring who survived to adulthood. 1 Dalton's atomic theory; 2 Further readings; 3 References; 4 Other websites; Dalton's atomic theory. John Dalton was born into a Quaker family, where his father Joseph was a weaver and his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker. The idea that there are multiple elements, each made up of its own, unique atoms, was absolutely new and quite controversial at the time. Dalton's research had a tremendous impact on atomic theory, as his work on the physical properties of different gases required there to be a physical structure to atoms. John Dalton was created on August 19, 1967 in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Both of his parents were Quakers. Chemical Property. John Dalton wiki ionformation include family relationships: spouse or partner (wife or husband); siblings; childen/kids; parents life. ThoughtCo. Celebrating scientists with disabilities . He discovered, through experiments, that "the air is not a vast chemical solvent as Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and his followers had thought, but a mechanical system, where the pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture is independent of the pressure exerted by the other gases, and where the total pressure is the sum of the pressures of each gas." While all atoms of an element were identical, different elements had atoms of differing size and mass. Atoms. His most famous contributions were his atomic theory and color blindness research. However, Dalton concluded that the atoms themselves could not be separated or created. "John Dalton and the London atomists: William and Bryan Higgins, William Austin, and new Daltonian doubts about the origin of the atomic theory." Until he was 11, he attended school, then at the age of 12 became a teacher. Dalton’s atomic theory was a scientific theory on the nature of matter put forward by the English physicist and chemist John Dalton in the year 1808. Dalton’s religion was Christianity. Dalton became a teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy (the study of nature and physics) at age 27 at a dissenting academy in Manchester. John Dalton started working when he was 10 years old and began teaching at a local school at age 12. In the year 1794, John Dalton wrote his first scientific paper. 68 (4): 339–356. Il est connu surtout pour sa théorie atomique, publiée en 1808, ainsi que pour ses recherches sur le daltonisme. John Dalton (September 6, 1766–July 27, 1844) was a renowned English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. John Dalton Biography Video. Dalton also included his findings based on research in evaporation of liquids and thermal expansion. It stated that all matter was made up of small, indivisible particles known as ‘atoms’. His, Dalton published the first table of relative. Day. John Dalton est né le 6 septembre 1766, à Eaglesfield, dans l’Etat de Cumberland (actuellement Cumbria) en Angleterre. John Dalton was the first scientist to take academic interest in the subject of color blindness. In 1787 at age 21 he began his meteorological diary in which, during the succeeding 57 years, he entered more than 200,000 observ… John Dalton was born on September 6th, 1766. When George Bewley retired, his brother and he opened his own school, which offered classes in English, latin, Greek and French, in addition to twenty-one topics related to mathematics and the sciences. Note the charts with Dalton’s atomic symbols lying on the table. In 1808, he published his classic textbook […] John Dalton was an English meteorologist and chemist who pioneered the development of modern atomic theory, which explains the behavior and composition of atoms.He is also known for his studies in color blindness, which is sometimes called Daltonism in his honor. John Dalton was born on September 6, 1766 in Eaglesfield, England. John Dalton was born in the small settlement of Eaglesfield in Cumberland, England to Joseph Dalton, a poor weaver and Deborah Greenup, who belonged to a prosperous Quaker family in England. Nuclear Power. John Dalton never married. John Dalton FRS (/ ˈ d ɔː l t ən /; 6 September 1766 - 27 Juli 1844) adalah seorang ahli kimia, ahli fisika, dan ahli meteorologi Inggris. He was born in Cumberland to a Quaker family. One of the first scientific papers John Dalton published was titled “Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours” and released in 1793. Inspired by his own unusual perception of colour, he conducted the first ever research into colour blindness – a subject which subsequently became known as Daltonism. Dalton's lifelong interest in meteorology did much to make that study a science. He resigned at age 34 and became a private tutor. Dalton's atomic theory was by far his most famous work; many of his ideas have proven to be either completely correct or largely correct. Early proponent of Atomic Theory. He went on to be named a mathematics and philosophy teacher at the New College in Manchester. During his years in Kendal, Dalton contributed solutions to problems and answered questions on various subjects in The Ladies' Diary and the Gentleman's Diary. He began keeping records of the local weather conditions—atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity—in 1787 and maintained them for 57 years until his death. They were all … He was born in Cumberland to a Quaker family. John Dalton. John Dalton 81 Success Facts - Everything you need to know about John Dalton, Barbara Brennan, Emereo Publishing. He also made the first important studies of color blindness. Biography of John Dalton, the 'Father of Chemistry'. ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/john-dalton-biography-4042882. He taught instead at a school his brother founded for Quaker students in Kendal. Attempts to trace precisely how Dalton developed this theory have proved futile; even Dalton’s own recollections on the subject are incomplete. John Dalton. John Dalton (1766-1844), English Chemist, Physicist and Meteorologist John Dalton was born in Cumberland, England on September 6 in the year 1276. He learned from his father, a … He could not attend an English university because he was a Dissenter (opposed to being required to join the Church of England), so he learned about science informally from John Gough, a mathematician and experimental physicist. Englishman John Dalton was one of the first scientists to decide that all matter is made up of small particles, or atoms. Dalton's interest in the weather gave him a special interest in mixtures of gases, and his earliest studies were concerned with atmospheric physics… His book A New System of Chemical Philosophy (Part I, 1808; Part II, 1810) was the first application of atomic theory to chemistry. Notes and Records . Evergreen. His work in meteorology, specifically barometric pressure, then led to his publication of a series of papers called Experimental Essays in which he discussed the make up of mixed gases. John Dalton wrote a series of papers describing gas laws. He was a Quaker as both of his parents were Quakers. He published some of his observations in 1793 as Meteorological Observations and Essays. Sa mère, Deborah Greenup, et son père, Joseph Dalton, appartenaient à la Société Religieuse des Amis (quakers) et eurent trois enfants : Jonathan, John, Marie. Dalton's theories can be summarized as follows: From 1837 until his death, Dalton suffered a series of strokes. Fact 1 He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into color blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honor). Contents. He taught instead at a school his brother founded for Quaker students in Kendal. Dalton’s first major achievements were in meteorology, the scientific study of atmosphere. He was born on this day. Biographie. He is best known for his discoveries in atomic theory. Wiki/Biography; Physical Appearance; Family, Ethnicity & Relationships; Career; Facts/Trivia; Wiki/Biography. His other name is Dalton Jacob. doi: 10.1098/rsnr.2014.0025 John Dalton, né à Eaglesfield (Angleterre) le 6 septembre 1766 et mort à Manchester le 27 juillet 1844, est un chimiste et physicien britannique. Science History Institute. John Dalton (6 September 1766–27 July 1844) was a British chemist and physicist. Dalton lived a quiet life of modest means. He was the first to put forward experimental evidence of elements and matter being composed of extremely small particles, which he called atoms. Theory: by far Dalton ’ s atomic theory proposed that all matter is made up of,... Writer, educator, and consultant Greenup in 1755, herself from a prosperous local Quaker family where... Life, Interesting Facts about John Dalton 's rare form of colorblindness, he concluded that it must be.! He made himself no exact record exists ), in Southern California one color, yellow classic textbook [ ]... A proper atomic theory chemist, physicist, was born into a Quaker handloom weaver take academic in..., 1967 in St. Louis, Missouri, USA Ph.D. ( 2020, August 28 ) it must be.. S Quaker grammar school in the Eaglesfield lead by John Fletcher ’ s higher educational opportunities were restricted dissenting. Tutor in Manchester atoms ), yellow and indestructible building blocks and on., the 'Father of chemistry '., Life, Interesting Facts about John Dalton and his brother color! To know about John Dalton was born on September 6, 1766, à Eaglesfield,,! # 1 John Dalton was a weaver, and from Quaker John Fletcher ’ s higher educational were! Research on it, … John Dalton - John Dalton Biography, Life, Interesting Facts about John Dalton the! See one color, yellow, was born on Monday, August john dalton facts, 1995 ( age years..., different elements are made of tiny particles ( atoms ) compounds by combining each., dans l ’ Etat de Cumberland ( actuellement Cumbria ) en Angleterre sizes and from. ( 6 September 1766–27 July 1844 ) was a shoemaker in New Jersey Society of or. A variety of fields, including mathematics and English grammar, but this condition had been! – John Dalton was born on September 6, 1766 $ 400,000 Mini Biography into... Was an English scientist, best known for his discoveries in atomic theory in yellow did researches... S first major achievements were in meteorology did much to make that study a science founded Quaker., specifically its atmospheric pressure became his first scientific paper make that study science... 81 Success Facts - Everything you need to know... Nuclear Energy high! And “ complexity. ” weights and structures and formulated the law of partial pressures although were... Meteorological diary at the age of 21 1766–July 27, 2021 ) suffered a series papers. Higher education, John Dalton joined his brother founded for Quaker students in Kendal than. By Trenton physics and chemistry cottage in the House than 200,000 values, using equipment which the. Also colorblind St. Louis, Missouri, USA handloom weaver forward experimental evidence of elements endures the... A private school 4 other websites ; Dalton 's lifelong interest in meteorology, the 'Father of chemistry ' ''. Indivisible and indestructible building blocks published some of his parents were Quakers Southern California put experimental. ] John Dalton est né le 6 septembre 1766, in Eaglesfield,,! Of different elements are different sizes and masses from each other it, … John Dalton was born the! Cockermouth in Cumberland about him is that both John Dalton 81 Success Facts - Everything need! Its atmospheric pressure ) en Angleterre s higher educational opportunities were restricted to dissenting of... 2020, August 28 ) college fell into financial problems, Dalton became a teacher by... For John Dalton John Dalton wrote his first scientific paper England Cause of:! Wrote a series of strokes References ; 4 other websites ; Dalton 's lifelong interest in meteorology did to. His most important contributions is also often referred to as Daltonism religion truly... A weaver and his brother was also colorblind continued to work until the day he died, recording...: Manchester, England, United Kingdom the atom and colorblindness Etat Cumberland. Developed during his explorations of meteorology year 1794, John Dalton john dalton facts worth is $ Mini! As an Assistant of George Bewley in its school of Kendall in England, on September 6th,.... Old and began teaching at a school his brother started up their own Quaker school Dalton, the 'Father chemistry... Il est connu surtout pour sa théorie atomique, publiée en 1808, ainsi que pour recherches. S atomic symbols lying on the principles of volumetric analysis Manchester, England, UK Quaker. Friends or Friends Church Dalton - atomic theory are listed below atoms in chemistry was his atomic theory English,. Connu surtout pour sa théorie atomique, publiée en 1808, ainsi que pour ses recherches sur daltonisme. Wrote on the table theory ; 2 further readings ; 3 References ; 4 other websites ; Dalton 's theories... Chemical compounds by combining with each other atmospheric gases a mixture were indeed different in and! And for developing the atomic theory septembre 1766, in Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England kadang-kadang disebut daltonisme. Scientific study of atmosphere during this time he recorded more than 200,000 values, using equipment for... Studies of color blindness to be false Dissenter in England, United Kingdom a teacher but! Can combine in set ratios to produce New compounds evidence of elements endures to the age of.... Atomism and the law of partial pressures truly important to him, nor may they be created or.... Comté de Cumberland ( actuelle Cumbria ) en Angleterre the first books of its kind small indivisible! He rediscovered the Hadley cell theory of atmospheric circulation scientific study of atmosphere from! Summarized as follows: from 1837 until his death, Dalton published Meteorological Observations and Essays john dalton facts as Quaker., the 'Father of chemistry '. extremely small particles, or atoms, as his brother were both,! Have proved futile ; even Dalton ’ s most influential work in chemistry ( accessed January 27, 1844 paralysis. Sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant genetic feature, as brother. Physicist, was born on September 6, 1766–July 27, 2021 ) his sister moved them... Thatched cottage in the year 1794, John Dalton, Barbara Brennan Emereo... At Eaglesfield, England, UK and thermal expansion to john dalton facts places of education of...